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Zbornik znanstvenih razprav - letnik 2023

Zbornik znanstvenih razprav

Zbornik znanstvenih razprav je revija Pravne fakultete v Ljubljani, ki z občasnimi prekinitvami izhaja že vse od leta 1921. Zbirka obsega arhiv od leta 2008 dalje. Izhaja 1 x letno.

Strokovna revija
Pravna fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani
dr. Primož Gorkič
dr. Bojan Bugarič, dr. Aleš Galič, dr. Katja Škrubej, dr. Luka Tičar
dr. Tilen Štajnpihler Božič
dr. Janko Ferk (Univerza v Celovcu, Deželno sodišče v Celovcu), dr. Katja Franko Aas (Pravna fakulteta Univerze v Oslu), dr. Velinka Grozdanić (Pravna fakulteta Univerze na Reki), dr. Tatjana Josipović (Pravna fakulteta Univerze v Zagrebu), dr. Claudia Rudolf (Inštitut za pravo Evropske unije, mednarodno pravo in primerjalno pravo, Pravna fakulteta Univerze na Dunaju), dr. dres. h. c. Joseph Straus (Inštitut Maxa Plancka za inovacije in konkurenco)

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Maciej Wojciechowski

Maciej Wojciechowski

Interpretational Oppositions between the Majority Opinion of the Court and the Dissenting Opinion

This article aims to identify the reasons for disagreement in interpretive judgments by examining selected cases from the Polish Supreme Administrative Court. The analysis focuses on the traditional triad of linguistic, systemic, and teleological interpretive canons. The study distinguishes interpretive disputes in a weak and strong sense (axiological disputes) and explores the utilisation of interpretive canons in the examined cases. The values used to characterise specific interpretive positions do not necessarily align with the intended purposes of the interpreted provisions. The analysis of opposing opinions, initially expected to reveal easily describable interpretive oppositions, proved challenging due to the complex nature of argumentation used to justify positions. While classic opposition between linguistic and teleological rationales was occasionally observed, it was difficult to discern such oppositions solely based on the justifications provided. In conclusion, the article tentatively posits that interpretive canons serve a more justificatory than heuristic function, providing limited explanation for occurrence of interpretive disagreements.

Katja Šugman Stubbs, Matjaž Jager

Katja Šugman Stubbs, Matjaž Jager

Pravnik kot notranji emigrant v hudodelskem pravnem sistemu

Avtorja analizirata vprašanje, kakšno je oziroma bi moralo biti delovanje pravnika v hudodelskem pravnem sistemu. Pri tem kot vidik uporabljata po drugi svetovni vojni pogosto uporabljan izgovor »notranjega emigranta«. Notranji emigrant je oseba, ki fizično ostane na svojem mestu, vendar se zato, ker ne odobrava okolja, v katerem je, od njega »odmakne navznoter«. Pri tem je lahko njegovo notranje neodobravanje navzven izraženo na različne načine: od konformnega delovanja do pasivnosti. Pravi notranji emigrant čuti napetost zaradi notranjega konflikta med svojimi vrednotami in pravnimi zahtevami, vendar navzven kljub notranjemu konfliktu deluje konformno. Tudi visoki nacistični sodelavci so se po drugi svetovni vojni pogosto proglasili za notranje emigrante, ker so oziroma naj bi imeli zadržke do nacističnega sistema. Prek analize zagovorov treh obsojencev v povojnem nürnberškem sojenju pravnikom (Juristenprozess) avtorja analizirata, kakšne so bile drže pravnikov do zločinskega pravnega reda. Avtorja ugotavljata, da lahko celo pri nekaterih vodilnih nacističnih pravnikih najdemo elemente notranje emigracije. Jih to dela manj krive? Za konec se s Thomasom Mannom vprašata, kakšno je moralno delovanje pravnika v takih časih. Ali ni morda (poleg upora) edino moralno dejanje – nedelovanje?

Camilla Faggioni

Camilla Faggioni

The International Ship-Registers in Europe: An Analysis from the Labour Law Perspective

The article underlines the issues surrounding international (second) ship-registers from a labour law perspective. The registers specifically analysed are the French, German, and Italian registers. The spread of international registers in the EU is bringing the working conditions onboard European ships into line with those prevalent in developing countries. Moreover, these registers can lead to wage dumping and pay discrimination, creating challenges for the employment prospects of European seafarers. Consequently, on a few occasions their legitimacy in relation to constitutional principles and European law has been questioned. Given their impact on workers, the author believes international registers cannot be considered a viable solution to the shipping crisis affecting the European Union Member States.

Mila Petrović

Mila Petrović

Sailing through the Fickle Waters of Food Delivery Platform Work in Serbia: In Which Direction Will the Wind Blow?

While it is true that food delivery platforms are a novel phenomenon, their presence was barely noticeable until the COVID-19 pandemic struck and a state of emergency was declared. This state of emergency led to various measures, including the imposition of curfews, sometimes extending for days. These restrictions on the freedom of movement rendered it impossible for citizens to leave their homes without special permits. Delivery couriers, equipped with the required movement permits, were seen as a lifeline by the housebound populace. Gradually, necessity evolved into habit, propelling these platforms to become some of the fastest-growing businesses in Serbia. Today, it is almost unthinkable to step outside without encountering a delivery courier from Glovo, Wolt or Mr. D. However, the rise of food delivery platform work in Serbia has not been without challenges. One significant issue is the limited protection afforded to self-employed persons working for these platforms. Additionally, there is a matter of violating the rights of employees in limited liability companies that have entered into “partnership agreements” with the platforms. The problem of informal employment also looms large, often manifesting in unofficial collaborations between entrepreneur-status workers and their colleagues. Despite efforts to address these issues, Serbia has yet to establish a clear definition of what constitutes a platform worker and the rights they are entitled to. This leaves us pondering the crucial question: where do we go from here?

Gianluca Giampà

Gianluca Giampà

An Inquiry into the Guidelines on the Application of EU Competition Law to Collective Agreements Concerning the Working Conditions of the Solo Self-Employed

The purpose of this article is to examine the compatibility of collective agreements for self-employed persons with the principles of European competition law. According to European law, self-employed persons are considered to be on equal footing with companies, thus making them susceptible to violating competition rules by entering into agreements on working conditions. The judgments of the European Court of Justice in the Albany and FNV Kunsten cases have established that collective agreements for self-employed persons are not generally exempted from the rules prohibiting restrictions on competition. However, considering the protection needs of numerous self-employed persons, a change in approach seems necessary. In 2022, the European Commission adopted Guidelines aiming to clarify the scope of EU competition law regarding collective agreements for self-employed persons. The objective is to exclude self-employed individuals who are most in need of trade union protection. However, there are some critical points in the Guidelines that warrant attention, such as the assessment of the compatibility of collective agreements for self-employed persons with competition law being conducted on an individual basis. A collective approach to the issue appears necessary instead of an individual one. Therefore, it seems appropriate to reflect on the dialectic between market freedom and social rights in European law concerning this specific issue, particularly in light of the recent proposal.

Tena Konjević

Tena Konjević

Free Movement of Workers within the EU: Western Solidarity or Dystopian Challenges for Central-East European Workers?

The article analyses the application of the principle of free movement of workers within the European Union, focusing on the challenges arising from implementing transitional arrangements that restricted this freedom for the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries’ nationals because of the concerns about mass migration and its potential impact on the labour market. The article aims to provide an overview of these reasons, scrutinising their proportionality and justification. Additionally, it examines the impacts of those transitional provisions, which have resulted in unequal EU citizenship rights and have stimulated the CEE workers’ predominant occupation in low-wage sectors of the labour market. Furthermore, the emergence of prejudice based on cultural differences towards the CEE workers has influenced Western EU employers’ preference for ‘good workers’ from the CEE countries, often attributed to the strong work ethic and willingness of the CEE workers to fill workforce gaps in less desirable jobs. To interrogate this matter and to determine whether the preference of the CEE workers arises from solidarity or some other interest, empirical research was conducted on a sample of Croatian nationals working in Germany. By its qualitative and quantitative approach, the article contributes to understanding the implications and dynamics surrounding the freedom of movement for workers within the EU, with a specific focus on the position of the CEE countries’ nationals. It explores the motives behind the implementation of transitional arrangements, examines their consequences for the EU labour market, and investigates the factors influencing Western employers’ preferences toward the CEE mobile workers.

Bruna Žuber, Aljoša Kalacanović

Bruna Žuber, Aljoša Kalacanović

Zloraba procesnih pravic v upravnem procesnem pravu

Prispevek obravnava zlorabo procesnih pravic v upravnem procesnem pravu. Namen prispevka je predstaviti dosedanji razvoj zlorabe procesnih pravic v upravnem procesnem pravu ter na podlagi stališč teorije in sodne prakse nakazati smer nadaljnjega razvoja tega instituta. Raziskovalni cilj prispevka je tudi oblikovanje in predstavitev kriterijev za prepoznavo zlorabe procesnih pravic. Avtorja ugotavljata, da se bodo zaradi vse večje kompleksnosti procesnih in materialnih vidikov (upravno)sodnega odločanja upravni organi in upravno sodstvo v prihodnje še pogosteje srečevali s primeri zlorabe procesnih pravic, posledično pa se bodo oblikovala tudi vse natančnejša merila za prepoznavo in presojo zlorabe procesnih pravic.

Filip Dougan

Filip Dougan

De Facto Unions in Private International Law

Over the past few decades, there has been a discernible trend among the European Union (EU) member states to regulate various aspects of de facto unions. Nonetheless, comparative analyses still reveal significant divergences in domestic laws. Within this spectrum, one may observe legal systems in which no explicit rules are envisaged for de facto unions, juxtaposed with those wherein the legal effects of such unions converge towards those of marriage. These differences in domestic substantive regulations of de facto unions inevitably pose formidable challenges for private international law. The article attempts to scrutinise the legal position of de facto unions under EU private international law and assess the extent to which such unions may benefit from the existing legal instruments. Overall, great fragmentation may be observed in the approaches found across various EU Regulations. In the second part, the article focuses on the regulatory landscape of de facto unions in Slovenia, encompassing both substantive and private international law aspects. Although Slovenia was once at the forefront of regulating de facto unions, it is now evident that the existing regulation in private international law is outdated and necessitates reform. This is particularly important, given that Slovenian substantive law attaches significant legal consequences to de facto unions, and such unions have become increasingly prevalent within Slovenian society.

Zarja Hude, Matej Igličar, Brian Sanya Mondoh

Zarja Hude, Matej Igličar, Brian Sanya Mondoh

DAOs: Introducing a New Era of Governance

Decentralised autonomous organisations (DAOs) are a growing phenomenon that has the potential to transform the organisational landscape. This article explores the implications of DAOs in corporate realms, highlighting their unique features and evolution. It emphasises the importance of understanding the similarities and differences between DAOs and traditional organisational structures. Whilst existing legal frameworks have been successful for traditional forms of organisation, they struggle to accommodate the distinctive characteristics of the democratised governance models introduced by DAOs. To fully leverage the enticing opportunities offered by DAOs, it is necessary to provide appropriate legal treatment that also addresses the risks they pose. The conclusion underscores the interest in community-owned protocols and suggests that further research is needed to effectively integrate DAOs into existing legal systems. It also encourages a broader examination of corporate requirements within the context of emerging data-driven technologies. The intersection of technology and company law principles calls for interdisciplinary efforts to shape the regulatory ecosystem for emerging, less formal formats of activity coordination and ensure their long-term viability and impact.

Mohor Fajdiga

Mohor Fajdiga

Freedom of Expression of Judges on Social Media: A Case Note on the Order Ds-ss 1/2021 of the Disciplinary Court of the Judicial Council of the Republic of Slovenia

A local court judge labelled the Slovenian Prime Minister a “great dictator” on her closed Facebook profile. One of her virtual friends captured a print-screen, propelling the posts into a national scandal. The Disciplinary Court acquitted the judge. The Ethical commission did not pass judgment on her, issuing only non-binding guidelines for public expression of judges on social networks. Nevertheless, the judge suffered significant sanctions. The President of the local court removed her from the leadership position, and she received serious threats and insults by private actors. The case note discusses the broader questions emerging from the case. In relation to which topics can judges express opinions of political nature? Can they expect privacy when they engage in closed social media communication? Which standards should the national authorities employ in assessing these issues? How judges perceive different sanctions and what measures can mitigate the chilling effect such sanctions can create? By analysing both formal and informal responses to the controversial Facebook posts and drawing upon the personal recollections of the affected judge, this case note aims to provide more clarity on the issues relevant way beyond Slovenia.

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